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Ressursmateriell: Teaching a Foreign Language

Aud Marit Simensen
Teaching a Foreign Language
Principles and Procedures.
Bergen: Fagbokforlaget 2007

Please notice an error in the number given on p.74 in the book. The first line on this page should read: “…such as India, Pakistan, Malawi, Nigeria, and many more, with 150–300 million users as a …”

For convenience web links are arranged according to the parts and chapters of the book in which they appear and briefly characterized in terms of key words

Introduction (no web links)
Part I: Theoretical bases Presentation of part I (no web links)
Chapter 1 The impact of the Reform Movement, ca. 1900–1925 (no web links)
Chapter 2 Towards system and control, ca. 1929–1950 (no web links)
Chapter 3 Teaching on a scientific basis, ca. 1950–1975 (no web links)
Chapter 4 Teaching and learning in meaningful contexts, ca. 1975–currently

The changing face of English
Learning English outside school:
http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/publikasjoner/actadidactica/index.html (accessed 30.11.2006).

Teaching world Englishes:
http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/languages/story/0,,475471,00.html (accessed 13.06.2006).
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tesol/tq/2006/00000040/0000001/art00008;jsessinid=vvfy3xj5trg6.henrietta (accessed 30.11.2006).

The Council of Europe 2001 document Framework:
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf (accessed 04.12.2006).

L2 learning as the development of a complex skill
A common underlying language proficiency:
http://www.thecenterlibrary.org/cwis/cwisdocs/bics.html (accessed 09.12.2006)
http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/cummin.htm (accessed 09.12.2006).

From conceptual frameworks to models for syllabus design and assessment of language proficiency
The Council of Europe 2001 document Framework:
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf (accessed 04.12.2006).

Common European Framework of reference for languages: scaled descriptions of L2 proficiency
The Council of Europe document Framework in other languages:
http://www.coe.int/T/DG4/Portfolio/?L=F&M=/documents_intro/common_frameworkf.html (accessed 12.09.2006).
The Council of Europe 2001 document Framework:
http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf (accessed 04.12.2006).

Part II: Practical procedures
Presentation of part II (no web links)

Chapter 5 A complementary approach to developing communicative abilities

To the best of our knowledge: A complementary approach
Two types of focuses
Cummins and the concepts of BICS and CALP:
http://www.iteachilearn.com/cummins/bicscalp.html (accessed 01.09.2006).

Information and communication technology
The Internet and reference
Search engines:
http://www.google.com (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://altavista.com (accessed 30.10.2006).

Checking information on web sites:
http://www.quick.org.uk/menu.htm (accessed 06.11.2006).

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/linktous.asp (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.m-w.com/ (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://dictionnaire.tv5.org/dictionnaires.asp?Action=4¶m=&che=1 (accessed 30.10.2006).

http://www.si.edu/resource/faq/nmah/start.htm (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.britannica.com/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

Wikipedia encyclopedias:
http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Internasjonalt (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki (accessed 30.10.2006).

Media web sites:
http://www.pathfinder.com/pathfinder/index.html (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.kidon.com/media-link/index.php (accessed 29.01.2007).
http://www.cnn.com/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

Folk songs:
http://www.scouts-europe.org/progresser/chante/hodari/ (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.contemplator.com/folk.html (accessed 30.10.2006).

Language corpora:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COBUILD (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corpus_linguistics (accessed 30.10.2006).

The Internet and teaching and testing
Learning opportunities and activities:
http://www.britishcouncil.org/ (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.netlanguages.com/information/english/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

The Norwegian foreign language centre/Fremmedspråksenteret:
http://www.fremmedspraksenteret.no/ (accessed 30.10.2006).
The European testing program DIALANG:
http://www.dialang.org/intro.htm (accessed 30.10.2005).

Teaching resources, study programs and electronic discussion groups:
http://www.linguistic-funland.com/tesl.help.html (accessed 30.10.2006).

Articles and discussions about the state of the art etc.:
http://education.guardian.co.uk/tefl/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

Applications for constructing activities:
http://hotpot.uvic.ca/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

Example of the web site of a textbook:
http://www.aschehoug.no/impressions/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

A study of a textbook web site:
http://www-bib.hive.no/tekster/hveskrift/rapport/2002-02/omtale.html (accessed 30.10.2006).

Software and courseware
A word processing program:
http://office.microsoft.com/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

A learning platform:
http://www.itsolutions.no/imaker.exe?id=2544&visdybde=1&aktiv=2544 (accessed 30.10.2006).

Programs for students with learning disabilities:
http://www.texthelp.com/ (accessed 30.10.2006).

http://www.amazon.co.uk/ (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.elearnaid.com/oxadleardicc.html (accessed 30.10.2006).

Computer-mediated communication
E-Tandem Europa:
http://www.slf.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/etandem/etindex-en.html (accessed 30.10.2006).

Networks for blogging:
http://www.blogger.com/start (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://www.diaryland.com/signup/ (accessed 30.10.2006).
http://schoolblog.epals.com/easeofuse (accessed 30.10.2006).

The Piczo generator:
http://www.piczo.com/?cr=2&rfm=y (accessed 01.11.2006).

Journals etc. for teachers
Foreign Language Teaching Forum:
http://www.cortland.edu/flteach/#description (accessed 30.10.2006).

Language Learning & Technology:
http://llt.msu.edu (accessed 25.10.2006).

http://inet.dpb.dpu.dk/infodok/sprogforum/sprogforum_welcome.html (accessed 06.11.2006).

Training modules in ICT:
http://www.ict4lt.org/en/index.htm (accessed 06.11.2006).

The services of CILT:
http://www.cilt.org.uk/ (accessed 06.11.2006).

Language such as French, German and Italian at Favorite Teacher Web Pages:
http://www.clta.net/lessons/toplinks.html (accessed 09.11.2006).

Selected links to web sites for German and Spanish:
http://folk.uio.no/sirilu/Siris-Linkssammlung.htm (accessed 09.11.2006).
http://folk.uio.no/jmaria/Profe/index.html (accessed 09.11.2006).

Chapter 6 The Comprehension skills: Listening and reading
Developing listening comprehension
While-listening activities

Picking a text from the Internet:
http://www.brucespringsteen.net/songs/ThePromisedLand.html (accessed 03.11.2006).

Videotaped material on the Internet:
http://www.cnn.com/ (accessed 03.11.2006).

A selection of additional Internet resources

Listening comprehension activities at Randall’s ESL Cyber Listening Lab:
http://www.esl-lab.com/ (accessed 03.09.2006).

Dialogues as listening texts:
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/try/listentry/dialogues.shtml (accessed 03.11.2006).

The NCLRC Language Resource Center’s activities:
http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/listening/liindex.htm (accessed 08.11.2006).

Texts from CNN with videos and sound tracks:
http://www.literacynet.org/cnnsf/archives.html (accessed 03.11.2006).

Texts with sound tracks from World English:
http://www.world-english.org/listening-news.htm (accessed 03.11.2006).

Listening tasks in the DIALANG assessment system:
http://www.dialang.org (accessed 21.09.2006).

Developing reading comprehension

After-reading activities in relation to longer texts
Inferencing about traits of characters in stories (activities suggested on the basis of texts):
http://www.fcatexplorer.com/parent/4gr/en/tipslister/question_tip_space.asp?src=tip121a.swf&skill=Inferences%20About%20Character%20Traits (accessed 09.11.2006).
Individualization in reading
Choosing reading material
Article about extensive reading:
http://www.kyoto-su.ac.jp/~trobb/sussrobb.html (accessed 04.11.2006).

A selection of additional Internet resources
Texts about a variety of topics with a number of reading comprehension activities suggested:
http://www.readingmatrix.com/directory/pages/Reading_Comprehension_Advanced/ (accessed 03.11.2006).

Game to decide what types the texts given are:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/reading/typesoftext/game.shtml (accessed 03.11.2006).

Activities in and explanatory comments on reading etc. from the NCLRC Language Resource Center:
http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/reading/reindex.htm (National capital language resource center; accessed 08.11.2006).

Activities suggested in relation to different purposes of and strategies in reading:
http://mrsdell.org/reading/comprehension.html (accessed 09.11.2006).

Sources and further reading
Reading in a Foreign Language; a professional journal with free subscription
http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/ (accessed 04.11.2006).

Chapter 7 The Production skills: Speaking and writing
A scale of activities
Handing in of a student’s text to a learner’s archive:
http://www.readingmatrix.com/directory/pages/Reading_Comprehension_Advanced/ (accessed 06.11.2006).

Developing speaking skills
Activities with a focus on what to say
Interview questions and topics for discussions:
http://www.churchillhouse.com/english/first.html (accessed 06.11.2006).

A selection of additional Internet resources:
The NCLRC Language Resource Center:
http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/developspeak.htm (accessed 08.11.2006).

The Ohio state university web site with, among other things, a link to tips for successful public speaking:
http://www.ohiou.edu/Esl/english/speaking.html#SpeakingSkills (accessed 08.11.2006).

Developing writing skills
In a nutshell: A process oriented approach to the teaching of writing
What is meant by process?
Activities for the study of purposes in existing texts:
http://mrsdell.org/reading/comprehension.html (accessed 09.11.2006).

Activities with a focus on what to write
Collaborative writing in a wiki
Study of a jointly produced, net-worked learning resource:
http://www.idunn.no/servlets/dispatcher?marketplaceId=2000&languageId=1&siteNodeId=845923 (accessed 07.11.2006).
http://www.wikisym.org/ws2006/proceedings/ (accessed 07.11.2006).

A selection of additional Internet resources
The NCLRC Language Resource Center with, among other things, activities on writing:
http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/writing/wrindex.htm (accessed 08.11.2006).

The BBC web site with models for writing different types of texts:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/revisewise/english/writing/ (accessed 08.11.2006).

Chapter 8 Selected component skills
Developing component skills in grammar
A selection of additional Internet resources
Ohio state university’s web site with links to grammar activities:
http://www.ohiou.edu/esl/english/grammar/activities.html (accessed 09.11.2006).

The Internet TESL Journal’s web site with grammar activities in English and bilingual vocabulary quizzes in many languages.
http://a4esl.org/ (accessed 09.11.2006).

The BBC web site Skillswise with activities in grammar:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/words/grammar/ (accessed 09.11.2006).

Developing component skills in vocabulary
A selection of additional Internet resources
Reading and Technology with varied activities for practicing vocabulary:
http://mrsdell.org/reading/vocabulary.html (accessed 09.11.2006).

The Language teacher with a discussion about the importance of practicing multi-word chunks:
http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/articles/2000/12/ketko (accessed 09.11.2006).

Chapter 9 Planning and organizing teaching
Better learning requires better learners: Learning to learn
Questionnaire about individual learning style, with the student’s results given electronically as a graph:
http://www.learning-styles-online.com/ (accessed 10.11.2006).

An introduction to the questionnaire below, including, among other things, also links to validation studies, articles about individual learning styles etc.:
http://www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSpage.html (accessed 10.11.2006).

Questionnaire about individual learning style, with the student’s results given electronically in terms of an index:
http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html (accessed 10.11.2006).

Chapter 10 Assessment and testing
A brief historical perspective
The communicative and meaning-oriented trend: 1980s and currently
The pioneer work on assessing oral proficiency by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages:
http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=1 (accessed 11.11.2006).

Self-assessment and electronic testing
European language portfolio
Two Norwegian versions of the ELP:
http://www.statped.no/templates/Page.aspx?id=25927&scope=ScopeLaerAns&epslanguage=NO (accessed 09.10.2006).

The language passport form of the ELP:
http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/europass/preview.action (accessed 03.10.2006).

Electronic program for the writing of a personal passport:
http://skolenettet.no/moduler/templates/Module_Overview.aspx?id=17706&epslanguage=NO (accessed 12.09.2006).

Examples of filled in passports and a matrix of the European levels of self-assessment:
http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/europass/home/hornav/Downloads/LangPassport/ELPExamples/navigate.action (accessed 12.09.2006).

Models for and electronic programs for making a personal Europass CV:
http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/europass/home/hornav/Downloads/EuropassCV/CVExamples/navigate.action (accessed 05.10.2006).

The DIALANG assessment system:
http://www.dialang.org (accessed 21.09.2006).

A note on the recent and current situation in the Norwegian school subject
An up to date model for a new written exam in English for high school based on the existing model for middle school:
http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=2294 (accessed 04.12.2006)

The study of the quality of the national tests:
http://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=634 (accessed 06.10.2006) or http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/publikasjoner/actadidactica/index.html (accessed 30.11.2006).

A general framework for the construction of the next national test for three school subjects, including English (autumn 2007):
http://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=2135 (accessed 06.10.2006).

Chapter 11 Research as systematic enquiry (no web links)

Chapter 12 Looking back (no web links)

Section I; Works referred to:

ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines. 1982/1986. Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: ACTFL Materials Center. http://www.actfl.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=1. (Updated guidelines may be downloaded; accessed 11.11.2006).

Burner, T. 2005. A Study of the Teaching and Learning of English Grammar with Special Reference to the Foundation Course in the Norwegian Senior High School. M.A. thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo, Department of Literature, Area Studies and European Languages. http://wo.uio.no/as/WebObjects/theses.woa/wa/these?WORKID=31882 (accessed 01.12.2006)

Council of Europe. 2000. European Language Portfolio (ELP): Principles and Guidelines. Strasbourg: Council of Europe http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/portfolio/Default.asp?L=E&M=/main_pages/welcome.html (accessed 04.12.2006).

Council of Europe. 2001a. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf (accessed 04.12.2006).

Eikrem, B.Olsen. 2006. Between ‘filling up hard disks’ and ‘looking for talents and creativity’. Teaching English as a foreign language in the 21st century: Perceptions, attitudes, dilemmas, types of talk and educational needs. Ph.D. thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo, Faculty of Education. http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/pdh-drgrad/doktoravhandlinger/index.html (accessed 10.11.2006).

Guardian Unlimited, Thursday April 19, 2001. http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/languages/story/0,,475471,00.html (accessed 13.06.2006).

Hasselgreen, A. 2003. Bergen ‘Can Do’ project. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. http://www.ecml.at/doccentre/researchdetail.asp?rg=1 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Hellekjær, G.O. 2005. The Acid test: Does Upper Secondary EFL Instruction Prepare Norwegian Students for the Reading of English Textbooks at Colleges and Universities. Ph.D. thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo, Faculty of Arts. http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/pdh-drgrad/doktoravhandlinger/index.html (accessed 10.11.2006).

Ibsen, E. 2004. Engelsk i Europa. Norsk rapport fra en europeisk engelskundersøkelse om holdninger til og ferdigheter i engelsk ved utgangen av den obligatorisk grunnskolen. Acta Didactica 2. Oslo: University of Oslo: Department of Teacher Education and School Development. http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/publikasjoner/actadidactica/index.html (accessed 30.11.2006).

Jenkins, J. 2006a. Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a lingua franca. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 1, 157–181. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tesol/tq/2006/00000040/00000001/art00008;jsessionid=vvfy3xj5trg6.henrietta (accessed 30.11.2006).

Lie, S., T.N. Hopfenbeck, E. Ibsen, and A. Turmo. 2005. Nasjonale prøver på ny prøve. Acta Didactica 1. http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/publikasjoner/actadidactica/index.html (accessed 30.11.2006).

Lund, A. 2004. The Teacher as Interface. Teachers of EFL in ICT-rich Environments: Beliefs, Practices, Appropriation. Ph. D. thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo, Faculty of Arts. http://www.ils.uio.no/forskning/pdh-drgrad/doktoravhandlinger/index.html (accessed 10.11.2006).

Lund, A. 2006. WIKI i klasserommet: individuelle og kollektive praksiser [WIKI in the classroom: individual and collective practices]. Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, 90, 4, 274–288. http://www.idunn.no/servlets/dispatcher?marketplaceId=2000&languageId=1&siteNodeId=845923 (accessed 04.11.2006).

Lund, A., and O. Smørdal. 2006. Is There a Space for the Teacher in a Wiki? In Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on Wikis (WikiSym '06) (pp. 37–46). Odense, Denmark: ACM Press. http://www.wikisym.org/ws2006/proceedings/ (accessed 04.11.2006).

Reading in a Foreign Language. http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/ (accessed 04.11.2006).

Sharwood Smith, M. 1991. (Plenary given at the Second Language Research Forum, University of California, Los Angeles, February–March 1991.) Quoted in J. Zuengler and E.R. Miller. 2006. Cognitive and sociocultural perspectives: Two parallel SLA worlds. TESOL Quarterly, 40, 1, 35–58. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tesol/tq/2006/00000040/00000001/art00003;jsessionid=1jbh4kbxvdd3y.henrietta (accessed 17.02.2006).

Simensen, A.M. 1999. Shifts of paradigm: A dilemma in foreign Language didactics as a major component in the education of teachers. In B.Hudson, F. Buchberger, P. Kansanen and H. Seel (eds.) Didaktik/fachdidaktik as science(-s) of the teaching profession? TNTEE Publications, 2, 1, Umeå: TNTEE Editorial Office. http://tntee.umu.se/publications/contributors2_1.html (accessed 01.12.2006).

Simensen, A.M. 2003. Fremmedspråkopplæringen ved et veiskille. Norsk Pedagogisk Tidsskrift, 3–4, 97–103. http://www.idunn.no/servlets/dispatcher?marketplaceId=2000&languageId=1&siteNodeId=845923 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Section II: Syllabus guidelines etc. of relevance for the notes on English as a school subject in Norway

Kunnskapsløftet. (The latest reform in the 10-year compulsory school and in upper secondary education and training) http://odin.dep.no/kd/norsk/tema/kunnskapsloeftet/ (English version: Knowledge Promotion. http://www.dep.no/kd/english/topics/knowledgepromotion/bn.html (accessed 04.12.2006)

Læreplan i engelsk. 2006. (K06) Oslo: Utdanningsdirektoratet. http://www.utdanningsdirektoratet.no/templates/udir/TM_Læreplan.aspx?id=2100&laereplanid=6866 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Læreplan i engelsk – programfag i studiespesialiserende utdanningsprogram. 2006. (L07, Internasjonal engelsk, Samfunnsfaglig engelsk and Litteratur og kultur). Oslo: Utdanningsdirektoratet. http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Læreplan.aspx?id=2100&laereplanid=7526 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Læreplan i fordypning i engelsk. 2006. Oslo: Utdanningsdirektoratet. http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Læreplan.aspx?id=2100&laereplanid=7262 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Læreplan i fremmedspråk. 2006. (K06, for the other foreign languages.) Oslo: Utdanningsdirektoratet. http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Læreplan.aspx?id=2100&laereplanid=6878 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Læreplan i fremmedspråk. 2006. (K07, for the other foreign languages in various study programs.) http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Læreplan.aspx?id=2100&laereplanid=6878 (accessed 04.12.2006).

Læreplanverket for den 10-årige grunnskolen. 1996. (L97) Engelsk. Oslo: Kirke-, utdannings- og forskningsdepartementet. (English version: The Curriculum for the 10-year Compulsory School in Norway. 1999. Oslo: The Royal Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs.) http://www2.udir.no/L97/L97/index.html (accessed 18.12.2006) and http://www.udir.no/templates/udir/TM_Artikkel.aspx?id=1396 (accessed 18.12.2006).

Additional links:

Kramsch, Claire. 1996. Proficiency Plus: The Next Step. http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/kramsc01.html (accessed 12.01.2007) Politeness, curricular implications, implications for training teachers

Thanasoulas, Dimitrios. 2001. The Importance of Teaching Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom. Radical Pedagogy . Issue 3. http://radicalpedagogy.icaap.org/content/issue3_3/7-thanasoulas.html (accessed 12.01.2006)
Not an expendable fifth skill, history of culture teaching, what is culture and why should it be taught, practical considerations.